Manpower Training and Planning/USA/UK

This section contains a variety of documents and materials on apprenticeship and industrial training in Great Britain and the United States that were accumulated over three decades, including materials about the system of apprenticeship and industrial training in Great Britain created by the Industrial Training Act of 1964, materials from a three-year grant from the USDOL in the 1970s to create a pilot Manpower Development Service at Utah State University, materials from a 1978 USDOL Manpower Institutional Grant under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, and documents, correspondence and papers collected by me during my three-year term as a member of the U.S. Federal Committee on Apprenticeship from 1990 to 1993.

Anyone interested in apprenticeship and industrial training in the United States or Great Britain will find this material of considerable interest and value. This section also includes materials collected in Great Britain about the operation of "residential colleges"—a unique form of education for working people in that nation.

In 1964, Parliament created a new industry-based system of apprenticeship and industrial training in Great Britain by the passage of the Industrial Training Act of 1964. It set up a system to organize and operate Britain's apprenticeship and other forms of industrial training in its major industries, created Industry Training Boards in each industry to direct the process, and established a levy-grant system to finance and improve on the training then available. In the early 1970s, I obtained a three-year demonstration grant from the USDOL to create a pilot Manpower Development Service at Utah State University to provide diagnostic and other forms of training and technical assistance to small- and medium-size businesses in Utah and the Intermountain region to determine if the human resource and training needs of these enterprises could be improved by such means. At the conclusion of the three-year project a report and recommendations were made to improve the nation's jerrybuilt system of industrial training.

In 1978, I obtained a "Manpower Institutional Grant" from the USDOL under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act for a four-year project to provide technical assistance and training to employment services and other state and local agencies dealing with unemployed and disadvantaged workers in Region VIII of the USDOL—Utah Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, and South Dakota. Through this project, a Masters degree in Human Resource Administration was created at USU and short courses and other training projects were developed and conducted throughout Region VIII.

From 1990 to 1993, I served 3 years on the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, and from 1990 to 2004 I worked in 11 countries in Southeast Asia and Central and Eastern Europe (Thailand, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, India, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine) designing and implementing projects to help national and local community leaders learn how to improve their human resource development and utilization systems, and how to organize and implement economic development and cooperative entrepreneurship programs for job creation.


  1. "Separate but Equal: Some myths and realities of English Secondary Education," published in the Comparative Education Review, in 1965. A paper that I had written for a class at Cornell in 1965 was revised and submitted to a journal for publication. It was completed and submitted for publication before we went to London to study the British system of apprenticeship and vocational training.
  2. In December 1966, I was invited to give a seminar to the staff and others at the Manpower Administration, USDOL in Washington, D.C., on the subject of Britain’s new 1964 Industrial Training Act. This led to a contract to write a paper for the National Manpower Policy Task Force on the same topic, which they published as a monograph, entitled: Britain’s Industrial Training Act: Its History, Development and Implications for America. It was also published in Britain. Ironically, it did in 76 pages what my thesis took ten times more pages and two more years to accomplish. I should have stopped while I was ahead. This activity also launched a four decades long career of working as a consultant to the United States Department of Labor.
  3. “Breaking out of the CETA mold,” A luncheon address to the Utah Private Industry Council CETA seminar, October 11, 1979. This was my first provocative speech, telling the audience that America needed a broader employment and training policy than that envisioned by Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, which had replaced the broader-based 1962 Manpower Development and Training Act.
  4. “Designing an Employment and Training Policy to Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century, National and International Perspectives,” keynote address delivered to the Governor’s Employment and Training Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, Nov. 30, 1987. In this speech I suggested what the elements of the nation’s employment and training policy and system needed to accomplish in future years, and urged Hawaii to catch the vision now and move in that direction. The delivery copy of the speech summarizes the paper.
  5. “Apprenticeship in 21st Century America,” Speech delivered to the Western Apprenticeship Coordinator’s Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 4, 1991. In this speech I tried to provide a vision for how apprenticeship could be used in America to carry out much of the nation’s industrial training needs in the 21st Century.
  6. "Britain's Industrial Training Act: Is it Working?" Training and Development Journal, Volume 23, August 1969, pp. 4-13. This publication was also printed in Great Britain.
  7. "Manpower policies: Lessons for the U.S. from Foreign Experience—the British Experience." Proceedings of the 1970 Annual Spring Meeting, Industrial Relations Research Association, May 8-9, 1970, pp. 523-533.
  8. "Now We Are Six: A Progress Report on the Industrial Training Act." Personnel Management (London), Volume 2, August 1970, pp. 12-17.
  9. "Training Ideas from Britain." Manpower, Volume 5, November 1971, pp. 19-23.
  10. "Britain's Industrial Training Act: A Case Study in the Development of Public Manpower Policy." In Baker's Dozen: Abstracts of Thirteen Doctoral Dissertations Completed Under Manpower Administration Research Grants, Manpower Research Monograph No. 27. Washington, D.C.: Manpower Administration, U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1973. pp. 103-112.
  11. “The Need for Training and Human Resource Consulting Services by Employers: A Report on Some Recent U.S. Experiments.” Paper presented at Second International Conference on Training and Development, University of Bath, England. Sept. 27–Oct. 3, 1973.
  12. "Human resource diagnostic services in Utah: an unmet need." Speech delivered to the Utah Chapter, Industrial Relations Research Association, February 5, 1974.
  13. "Patterns of human resource development in the developed countries." Speech delivered to the Third International Conference on Training and Development, Gausdal, Norway, August 29, 1974.
  14. "Manpower Development Service: deliverer of consulting services to small and medium-sized employers." Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Training and Development, Gausdal, Norway, August 30, 1974.
  15. "Implications of Foreign Training Practices for American Apprenticeship." Proceedings of the 1974 Annual Winter Meeting, Industrial Relations Research Association, San Francisco, California, December 28-29, 1974, pp. 71-79. (With Myron Roomkin.)
  16. "USU Manpower Development Service: Deliverer of Consulting Services to Small-and Medium-sized Employers." Industrial and Commercial Training (London), Volume 7, April 1975, pp. 143-150. (With M. T. Bentley and J. R. Cragun.)
  17. Dropouts and Completers in the Utah Apprenticeship System, 1969-74: Causes and Consequences. Manpower Development Service, Utah State University: Logan, Utah, September 1975, 161 pp. (With Mark Randle.) Box also contains a draft copy of this document.
  18. "Recent European Training Practices: Their Implications for America." Journal of European Training, Volume 5 No. 5, 1976. pp. 245-261. (With Myron Roomkin)
  19. “Manpower Advisory Services in the Workplace: A Missing Link in National Manpower Policy.” Gary B. Hansen, Marion T. Bentley, et. al., July 1977. 44 pages.
  20. “Human Resource Training and Development Services: A model delivery system for developed and developing countries.” Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Training and Human Resource Development, Mexico City, October 6, 1977 (With Marion T. Bentley)
  21. “Models of National Industrial Training Systems: The U.S. System.” Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Training and Development. Washington, D.C., June 15, 1978. (With Marion T. Bentley)
  22. “The U.S. Industrial Training System: Private Initiative Versus Parochial Public Programs.” Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Training and Development. Washington, D.C., June 15, 1978. (With Marion T. Bentley)
  23. “Training and the Quality of working life: preparing organizations for change.” Paper presented at the 34th Annual Conference of the American Society of Training and Development, Chicago, ILL, June 20, 1978. (With M.T. Bentley)
  24. "The role of the institutional grantee university in the CETA system." Presentation before the CETA Technical Assistance and Training Coordinator's Bi-Regional Conference, Colorado Springs, Colorado, May 16, 1979.
  25. "Private industry councils: an unparalleled opportunity or passing fad." Presentation at the Region VIII Private Sector Initiatives Program Conference, Denver, Colorado, August 15, 1979.
  26. "Educating the HRD practitioner of the eighties." Paper presented at the Eighth International Conference on Training and Development, Manila, Philippines, November 10, 1979.
  27. "Industry Training Boards and national manpower training systems." Presentation to the National Manpower and Youth Council, Manila, Philippines, November 12, 1979.
  28. Education and Training opportunities provided for the former Garland Workers: A Final Report. Business and Economic Development Services, February 1980. (With M. T. Bentley and Cindy D. Jorgensen.)
  29. "Improving Productivity via QWL Centers." Training and Development Journal, Vol. 34, March 1980, pp. 30-37. (With Marion T. Bentley.)
  30. “Educating The HRD Practioners of the 80’s.” Paper presented at the ASTD Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, April 30, 1980.
  31. "Educating the HRD Practitioners of the 80's," Chapter 44 in Human Resources Development Horizon's in the Eighties and Beyond, Proceedings of the 8th International Training and Development Conference, Manila, Philippines, November 7-12, 1979. Manila: IFTDO & DAP Press, 1980, pp. 447-477.
  32. "Employment generating services and economic development under CETA/PSIP." Presentation at U.S. Department of Labor PIC/PSIP Regional Conference, Jackson, Wyoming, June 4, 1980.
  33. “Planning and implementing non-traditional activities under PSIP.” Paper delivered at the Region XIII PIC/PSIP Conference, Jackson, Wyoming, June 5, 1980.
  34. "A comparative analysis of the British Industry Training Board System and the U.S. CETA and Private Sector Initiatives Program." Paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Training and Development, Dublin, Ireland, August 25, 1981.
  35. "A Comparative Analysis of the British Industrial Training Board System and the U.S. CETA and Private Sector Initiatives Program," in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Training and Development, Dublin, Ireland, August 25-28, 1981. Dublin: Irish Management Society, 1982, pp. 152-202.
  36. "Training for Productivity Improvement in State and Local Government: The Utah Experience." Paper presented at the 12th International Conference on Training and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, August l6, l983.
  37. "Professional Education for Careers in Human Resource Administration," The Personnel Administrator, Vol. 29, (January l984), pp. 69ff.
  38. "Closing the Rural Employment and Training Gap: A Utah Experiment," Thrust: The Journal for Employment and Training Professionals, Vol.6 (no.1 & 2) 1985, pp. 51-59.
  39. "U.S. Employment and Training Policy: A Twenty-Five Year Review, 1960-1985," Economia & Lavoro, Vol. XX No. 3, August-September 1986, pp. 141-147. (Published in Rome, Italy)
  40. “The U.S. Approach to Continuing Education and Training for Adult Workers.” Paper presented at the 2nd European Congress on Continuing Education and Training, Berlin, October 27-28, 1988.
  41. "Assessing the Returns to Training." Chapter in New Developments in Worker Training: A legacy for the 1990s. Madison: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1990. (With Stephen Mangum and Garth Mangum). pp. 55-89.
  42. Chapter 7 in the ERAC Guide discusses Quick Start and other forms of vocational training that were introduced into Bulgaria, Hungary, and several other CEE countries as part of the USDOL projects in the region, and became part of the USDOL Adjustment Model. This chapter provides the reader with an understanding of this intensive type of training and how it was used in several of these countries.